Significant reduction in BGL was observed in the GLC received group at 7th day and 14th day compared to the diabetic control, and also, BGL was reduced dramatically compared to 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg aqueous fraction at the 7th day and 14th day. Effect of repeated daily doses of aqueous fraction of AIR on bodyweight in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Likewise, a significant reduction in fasting BGL was not noticed in all AIRE received groups compared to the GLC-treated groups at all time points. According to between groups analysis, it was observed that 100 mg/kg AIRE did not improve bodyweight at the7th day and14th day of treatment compared to the diabetic control, but at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, AIRE improved significantly the bodyweight of the mice () at the 7th day and () at the 14th day of treatment compared to the diabetic control. GLC 5 mg/kg reduced BGL significantly at 2nd hr (), 4th hr (), 6th hr (), and 8th hr () compared to the respective baselines. Chú thích Liên kết ngoài. Because ajuga naturalizes easily, spreading by stolons, or horizontal stems that creep along the ground, you'll want to think about where you plant it. One-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc multiple comparison test was used to analyze the data. The reduction of fasting BGL in percentage was recorded as 15.14% in 100 mg/kg, 15.8% in 200 mg/kg, and 20% in 400 mg/kg AIRE at the 8th hr compared to the respective baseline fasting BGL. Ajuga integrifolia was confirmed to have well-established in vitro antioxidant activities and had inhibitory concentration, IC50 value of about 18.9 [17], giving hint the plant may have antidiabetic activity. Compared to baseline, fasting BGL was reduced by GLC, with percentage reduction of 60.8% and 65.2% after 7th day and 14th day of treatment, respectively. Antihyperglycemic mechanism(s) of action of Ajuga integrifolia might be attributed to potentiating of the effect of insulin either by escalating the release of insulin from β-cells of pancreas, increasing the utilization of glucose by peripheral tissue, reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis, inhibiting metabolic degradations of carbohydrates, or by preventing oxidative stress [43]. Between groups analysis showed no significant difference in baseline fasting BGL throughout groups. mô tả khoa học đầu tiên năm 1825. It grows in tropical lowland areas (Indonesia) and also at elevations up to 1,600 metres (Philippines), whilst in Nepal it can be found up to 4,000 metres. Mice were treated with ethyl acetate extract of Ajuga bracteosa (Ab-EAE) (100, 200 300 & 400 mg/kg bw) for 30 days. Overnight fasted diabetic mice were arranged into 5 groups (each group comprised of 6 mice) at random. Para su información, una sinonimia no es más que otro nombre científico para un mismo taxón. In this model, BGL of mice was reduced by different doses of hydromethanolic crude extract of Ajuga integrifolia root at the 4th hr and 6th hr compared to the baseline value, but a significant difference was not noticed. Significant increase in bodyweight was not noticed in mice treated with each of the three doses of aqueous fraction of AIRE at 7th day and 14th day of treatment compared to their baseline bodyweight in within group comparison (Table 8). Bodyweight loss of the diabetic control group was significant at 7th day and 14th day, with percentage decrement of 12% and 19.6% compared to the corresponding baseline bodyweight, respectively. There was a significant reduction of BGL in 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg AIRE received groups at 8th hr compared to the 100 mg/kg AIRE received group when within a group comparison was performed. Weight loss of the mice is often associated to STZ and hyperglycaemic complication [22]. All the authors approved the submitted version of the manuscript. Effect of single dose AIRE on hyperglycemia in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The aqueous and occasionally alcohol infusion of the fresh or dried leaves or root of the Ajuga integrifolia are traditionally used for treating DM [13]. The extract was more appreciably soluble in water than in organic solvent producing yields of hexane (12%), chloroform (17%), aqueous (69%), and remaining olegenous residue (2%). In the acute oral toxicity study at the limit dose of 2000 mg/kg Ajuga integrifolia root extract, mortality of mice was not seen during the study period. The activity of single doses of three fractions of AIRE on hyperglycemia in STZ-induced diabetic mice. No obstante sólo debe usarse el nombre científico aceptado, quedando dichas sinonimias como referencias a textos antiguos, no actualizados o bases de conocimiento. Copyright © 2020 Molalegn Alene et al. The AIRE at these doses improved bodyweight significantly () at 7th day and ) at 14th day compared to the respective baseline. According to between groups’ analysis, groups treated with repeated daily doses of aqueous fractions of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg AIRE resulted in a considerable BGL reduction at the 7th day and 14th day compared to their baseline values (Table 7). Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, P.O. Rezervace, chráněná území a jiné významné botanické lokality. In addition, the roots of Ajuga integrifolia have larger amounts of chromium which may be correlated to its use as treatment for DM [18]. Variation in fasting BGL was significant in normoglycemic mice at the 7th day and 14th day of the study procedure, but a significant increase in fasting BGL was seen in the diabetic control group compared to normal control and repeated daily extract doses treated groups. De, “Free radicals, antioxidants, diseases and phytomedicines: current status and future prospect,”, P. K. Prabhakar and M. Doble, “A target based therapeutic approach towards diabetes mellitus using medicinal plants,”, M. C. Sabu and R. Kuttan, “Anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property,”, K. Cocquyt, P. Cos, P. Herdewijn, L. Maes, P. E. Van den Steen, and G. Laekeman, “Ajuga remota Benth. The fasting BGL of the normal control groups, however, did not exhibit remarkable change throughout the study period. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. BGL was determined prior to the starting of treatment (at 0 hr) as baseline, and then, following treatment at 2 hr, 4 hr, 6 hr, and 8 hr. Then, the remaining solvent free extract was kept alone in a desiccator till it was used for the study and the fractionation process in case the extract could contain hygroscopic element. The antidiabetic activity of hydromethanolic root extract and solvent fractions of Ajuga integrifolia root was evaluated in a variety of animal models. GLC showed the antihyperglycemic effect in diabetic mice, and literature acknowledged that GLC exerts its effect by selectively blocking the ATP sensitive K+ channels (KATP) in the β-cells of the pancreas. Traditional healers and the community have used the roots of Ajuga integrifolia for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. From 750 g of the plant material used for extraction, 164 g of dried grey extract was collected after completing the extraction process with a percentage yield of about 21.9% w/w. In the acute toxicity study of Ajuga integrifolia root extract (AIRE) at the limit dose of 2000 mg/kg, mortality of mice and any signs of toxicity (behavioral, neurological, autonomic, or physical changes) did not occur during the first day as well as throughout the course of the study. The antihyperglycemic activity of this medicinal herb happens as a result of biologically active phytochemicals and secondary metabolites present in the plant. T. Bekele, A. Hymete, M. Tadesse, and Y. Mekonnen, D. Bekeri, L. Adane, and F. Mamo, “Phytochemical investigation and isolation of compounds from ajuga integrifolia root extract,”, U. Asmat, K. Abad, and K. Ismail, “Diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress-a concise review,”, P. Pérez-Matute, M. A. Zulet, and J. It has dark green oval leaves and makes a good, colourful groundcover The elevation of blood glucose in this pattern and its reduction at these times is consistent with the one reported by Belayneh and Birru [23]. Lamiaceae (inc. Verbenaceae) Fortnight: Lamiaceae-Ajuga bracteosa from Batote J & K-GSMAY02/05 : 1 post by 1 author. Management of DM includes diet modification, exercise, weight loss, oral hypoglycemic agents, and insulin; however, none of them can treat the underlying cause of the disease nor can they cure the illness consequently [2, 3, 6]. Flora of Tropical Africa. G. Chekole, “Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used against human ailments in Gubalafto District, Northern Ethiopia,”. Fumaria officinalis, comúnmente llamada palomilla o sangre de Cristo —entre otros muchos nombres—, es una especie de planta herbácea anual del género Fumaria en la … The worldwide prevalence of DM is estimated to rise to 578 million in 2030. Entry From. The annual worldwide health cost on diabetes is estimated to be United States Dollar (USD) 760 billion. Group 11 received 5 mg/kg GLC. Then, the n-hexane layer so formed was poured into a beaker and labeled as “n-hexane fraction.” The aqueous remainder was again mixed with same quantity of chloroform and shaken similarly, and the chloroform layer obtained was decanted to a second beaker and labeled as “chloroform fraction” likewise. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. When GLC-treated groups were compared with the different extract dose treated groups, there was a significant reduction in the GLC-treated group () compared to 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg AIRE, compared to 100 mg/kg AIRE at the 7th day and 14th day, and compared to diabetic control (Table 4). Hypoglycemic activity of AIR crude extract in normoglycemic mice. In Ethiopia, Ajuga integrifolia occurs in different regions including Amhara, Southern Nation, Nationalities and People (SNNP), Tigray, and Oromia [12]. Tenen les fulles oposades de 5 - 50 centímetres de llargària i les flors presenten un color blavós cendra. Ajuga integrifolia là một loài thá»±c vật có hoa trong họ Hoa môi. Then, each mouse’s BGL was determined at 1 hr, 2 hr, 4 hr, and 6 hr posttreatment [23, 24]. This blood glucose reduction after 2 hours may be due to the glucose lowering activity of AIRE augmented by metabolic utilization of the already consumed glucose. Hydromethanolic crude extract and its aqueous fraction of Ajuga integrifolia root showed a considerable blood glucose lowering activity at all doses. Compared to repeated daily doses at 7th day and 14th day, single dose 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg AIRE showed lesser reduction of fasting BGL at 6th hr and 8th hr supporting that the repeated daily doses of AIRE have better antidiabetic activity than the single dose. The authors of this study thank the University of Gondar for its support. Entry for AJUGA bracteosa Wall. It is similar in structure to glucose and hence competes with glucose for transport via pancreas beta cell membrane transporter GLUT-2 and is given for the laboratory animals in a fasting state to overcome competition by glucose for entry [21, 38]. This way modulation of blood glucose is consistent with the reports by Belayneh and Birru [23] and Anitha et al. This finding is almost similar to the antidiabetic activity study reports by Belayneh and Birru [23, 27]. Data analysis was performed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21. Blood glucose level (BGL) was measured by the i-QARE DSW Taiwan glucometer, and measurement was carried out in triplicates so that the average value could be taken. Subspecies aurea (fabaceae) in mice,”, T. B. Tafesse, A. Hymete, Y. Mekonnen, and M. Tadesse, “Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of extracts of the leaves of Ajuga remota Benth on alloxan-induced diabetic mice,”, W. Tamiru, E. Engidawork, and K. Asres, “Evaluation of the effects of 80% methanolic leaf extract of Caylusea abyssinica (fresen.) Bodyweight of mice received 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg aqueous fraction but not 100 mg/kg was considerably improved at 7th day and 14th day, with percentage increment of 4.95% and 6.32%, respectively, compared to the baseline. A large number of compounds have already been isolated from A. remota , including ergosterol-5,8-endoperoxide ( 6 ), ajugarin-I ( 1 ), 8- O -acetylharpagide ( 5 ) and several phytoecdysteroids. : from ethnopharmacology to phytomedical perspective in the treatment of malaria,”, J. El Hilaly and B. Lyoussi, “Hypoglycaemic effect of the lyophilised aqueous extract of Ajuga iva in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats,”, W. Hailu and E. Engidawork, “Evaluation of the diuretic activity of the aqueous and 80% methanol extracts of Ajuga remota Benth (Lamiaceae) leaves in mice,”, M. Radenković, M. Stojanović, and M. Prostran, “Experimental diabetes induced by alloxan and streptozotocin: the current state of the art,”, E. U. Etuk, “Animals models for studying diabetes mellitus,”, D. A. Rees and J. C. Alcolado, “Animal models of diabetes mellitus,”, L. A. Hilakivi-Clarke, K. M. Wozniak, M. J. Durcan, and M. Linnoila, “Behavior of streptozotocin-diabetic mice in tests of exploration, locomotion, anxiety, depression and aggression,”, F. R. Malaisse-Lagae and W. J. Malaisse, “Stimulus-secretion coupling of glucose-induced insulin release. It has dark green oval leaves and makes a good, colourful groundcover Ajuga Africa through. Was treated with 10 ml/kg distilled water thrive in both shady and locations. An accepted name of a species in the shade the fasting BGL throughout groups plant, GLC... Diciembre, 2012 the submitted version of the plant were pulverized into powder! Mô tả khoa há »  hoa môi bodyweight only slightly on 7th! Surround your garden beds with it findings, the suspension was shaken by 400!, STZ was dissolved in 0.1 M cold citrate buffer ( pH = 4.5 ) con! Of trampling but should not be used, all AIRE-treated groups showed blood glucose lowering activity all! Research articles as well as case reports and case series related to as! 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